Having clearly identified the problems with current practice, Rick will explain why setting an air tightness goal for the enclosure, and confirming it has been achieved via blower door testing, is essential to address these shortcomings and deliver comfort and efficiency. He will discuss how properly installed and sealed air distribution HVAC systems located inside the home’s thermal and air barriers greatly improve performance without the need for new, complex technologies. Rick will explain how a ‘tight’ enclosure, with proper ventilation, typically makes a ducted, air-based HVAC approach, with small electric heat pump that provides both heating and cooling, the most cost-effective option. Rick will also discuss why in new construction, ducted systems that deliver air to each room are needed, with ductless mini-splits best used in small homes with few rooms and some retrofit situations. He will also briefly discuss radiant floor systems and their limitations in homes with a good enclosure and reduced demand for heating and cooling.